Q-1 What is meant by Irrigation?

The artificial method of watering the crops by different methods by different ways like pipes, channels, sprinklers, drip using an electric pump is called irrigation. Initially, Irrigation starts with the flow along with the gravity which advances to canals, then to pipes (initially cement & GI, then PVC, HDPE & others) & then to Sprinkler & Drip Irrigation.

Irrigation is usually used in areas where rainfall is irregular or dry times of drought are expected.

Q-2 What is Drip Irrigation?

Artificial application of water directly to the root zone of the plants as per their daily water requirement is called drip Irrigation. This system is designed to keep the Field capacity conditions around the root zone of the crop for 24 hours.

Q-3 What are the benefits of drip irrigation?

A: Drip Irrigation has many benefits. It is designed to supply the exact amount of water directly to the root zone of the crop on the basis of its maximum daily water requirement. Drip Irrigation has the following advantages

  • Highly efficient water management saving 40-60% water over flood Irrigation
  • Highly efficient Fertigation management saving 30 to 40% fertilizers over traditional methods
  • Highly efficient crop management maintaining sanitization in the field & onetime plantation & harvesting advantages
  • Highly efficient power management leading to saving in electricity
  • Highly efficient labor management reducing the labor cost over the traditional methods
Q-4 Is a drip line irrigation system difficult to install?

A: With minimal skill, proper design & tools, it is not very hard to install a drip system. You can follow the manual for installing the Header unit. PVC main, Control valve & Sub main are easy to install. For punching holes in the sub-main, a proper size drilling machine is needed. The rest work of laying of Polytube or Inline is comparatively easy.

Q-5 What is the difference between Drip & Flood Irrigation System?
Drip Irrigation Flood Irrigation
Highest Water use Efficiency more than 90% Water-use Efficiency Varies between 40 to 60%
Water applied daily to keep moisture level in root zone area at field Capacity (Max. 25% low to FC) Water applied in 6-10 days interval to keep moisture level in root zone area at field Capacity (50%-90%to FC)
Root zone developed in defined Volume of Soil Random development of Root Zone
Roots having High Uptake efficiency of Water & minerals Due to more moisture shocks roots having low Uptake efficiency of Water & minerals
Development of compact water-absorbing roots saving plant energy Development of a Random root zone requiring more energy for the plant to sustain
Q-6 What is the difference between Drip & Sprinkler Irrigation System?
Parameter Sprinkler Drip
Efficiency 60%-80% 80%-95%
Operating Pressure 2-4 Bar (even more in some cases) 1 Bar
Uniform Distribution Affected by wind velocity No effects of winds on irrigation and uniformity
Suitability Not suitable for crops like cotton, grape, vegetables, etc. when the plant is at flowering stage Suitable for almost all crops
(Crop & Soil) Sprinklers are not well adapted to soils having lower intake rate For soil having lower intake rates, low flow drip irrigation works efficiently
Suitability (Geometry) Odd field shapes are not suitable for Sprinkler irrigation systems Irrigation can be managed to any kind of odd shape field
Even un-cropped land will get wet – more weeds Only cropped area get irrigated
Q-7 What does Fertigation mean?

The name might give a clue as to the definition of Fertigation. Simply put, fertigation is a process that combines fertilization and irrigation. Fertilizer is added to an irrigation system. It is most commonly used by commercial growers. Fertigation rather than traditional fertilization approaches is purported to target the plant’s nutrient deficiencies more effectively. It also reduces soil erosion and water consumption, reduces the amount of fertilizer utilized, and controls the time and rate it is released.

Q-8 What are the major factors affecting the growth of the plants/crops?

The name might give a clue as to the definition of Fertigation. Simply put, fertigation is a process that combines fertilization and irrigation. Fertilizer is added to an irrigation system. It is most commonly used by commercial growers. Fertigation rather than traditional fertilization approaches is purported to target the plant’s nutrient deficiencies more effectively. It also reduces soil erosion and water consumption, reduces the amount of fertilizer utilized, and controls the time and rate it is released.

Q-9 What is a crop rotation?

The method of growing different types of crops in the same area during sequential seasons is called crop rotation. This is done mainly to prevent soil erosion due to mono-cropping. Also, soil health is also maintained due to few crop rotations. It is very clearly known that growing only a certain variety of crops in the same area depletes the region of one particular kind of nutrient, therefore, to keep or maintain the balance of nutrients in the soil a different crop is grown for a certain duration or season to help restore the imbalance.

Q-10 What are the advantages of crop rotation?

The general pattern of following a seasonal calendar for planting crops is now being termed crop rotation and the possible advantages of this technique are:

  • Crop rotation Improves soil fertility by increasing the nutrient and organic content in the soil.
  • It provides proper nourishment and increases crop yield.
  • It replenishes nutrients into the soil.
  • It reduces soil erosion.
  • It reduces the concentration of pests and diseases.
  • It decreases the impact of weeds.
  • It improves the physical structure of the soil.
  • It reduces the pollution caused by fertilizers.
  • The produce from the farm helps the survival of the labor as well as supplies the external market.
  • Availability of raising short duration crops for immediate income.